Not knowing the precise position of the Byzantine army, Abu Bakr ordered that all corps should remain in touch with each other so that they could render assistance if the Byzantines were able to concentrate their army in any operational sector. [10][11] After three Muslim leaders were killed, the command was given to Khalid ibn al-Walid and he succeeded in saving the rest of the forces. Meanwhile, the Sasanian Empire conquered Mesopotamia and in 611 they overran Syria and entered Anatolia, occupying Caesarea Mazaca (now Kayseri, Turkey). Phase 1: Khalid ordered a general attack on the Byzantine front and galloped his cavalry around the left wing of the Byzantines. The result of the battle was a complete Muslim victory that ended Byzantine rule in Syria. [4] During the last of the Roman-Persian Wars, beginning in 603, the Persians under Khosrau II had succeeded in occupying Syria, Palestine and Egypt for over a decade before being forced by the victories of Heraclius to conclude the peace of 628. Multimedia History Tutorials by the Applied History Group, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 15:22. Khalid has narrated a number of hadiths from Prophet Muhammad (s). With the Byzantine army routed, the Muslims quickly recaptured the territory they had conquered prior to Yarmouk. [82] Jonah, the Greek informant of the Rashidun army during the conquest of Damascus, died in the battle. Lyrics to 'Location' by Khalid: Send me your location, let's Focus on communicating 'Cause I just need the time and place to come through (place to come through) Send me your location Let's ride the vibrations During the reign of Caliph Uthman, Constantine III decided to recapture the Levant, which had been lost to the Muslims during Umar's reign. He would have tried to reconquer the province if he had the resources[87] but now had neither the men nor the money to defend the province any more. Before marching towards Antioch, Khalid and Abu Ubaidah decided to isolate the city from Anatolia. Meanwhile, Abu Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah, the supreme commander of the Muslim armies in Syria, had ordered Shurhabil ibn Hasana to attack Bosra. And break not the pacts which you make. [1] The Muslims tolerated the Jews and Christians; indeed, Nestorian and Jacobite Christians were treated better under the Muslims than under the Byzantines. This battle and subsequent clean-up engagements forever ended Byzantine domination of the Levant. When Heraclius seized the throne of the Byzantine Empire from Phocas in AD 610, he inherited an empire on the verge of collapse in the wake of a successful Sassanid offensive. [59] Meanwhile, he sent reinforcements[38] of 6,000 troops, mostly from Yemen, to Khalid. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Even then, they were at no substantial tactical disadvantage. He planned to engage his two central armies with the Muslim centre in an effort to stall them while the main thrusts would be against the wings of the Muslim army, which would then be driven away from the battlefield or pushed towards the centre. [32][33] Abu Ubaidah ordered the concentration of troops in the vast plain near Jabiyah, as control of the area made cavalry charges possible and facilitated the arrival of reinforcements from Umar so that a strong, united force could be fielded against the Byzantine armies. As the Byzantine left centre retreated under three-pronged attacks of Khalid, the Byzantine left wing, having been exposed at its southern flank, also fell back. In 645–646, Sufyan bin Mujib Al-Azdi, appointed by Muawiyah, managed to seize Tripoli to eventually capture the last Byzantine stronghold on the Levantine coast.[29]. Mail was commonly used to protect the face, neck, and cheeks as an aventail from the helmet or as a mail coif. [14], Meanwhile, there had been rapid political development in the Arabian Peninsula, where Muhammad had been preaching Islam and, by 630, had successfully annexed most of Arabia under a single political authority. The winner is the one which gets best visibility on Google. Khalid, commanding the advance guard, reached Fahl first and found that the Byzantines had flooded the plains by blocking the River Jordan. Khalid's mobile guard defeated and routed them, the last action before the battle started. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEl_HareirM'Baye2011 (, The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns: page no:576 by Lieutenant-General. ^ g: His name is mentioned in Islamic sources as Jaban, Vahan Benaas and Mahan. He is noted for his military prowess, commanding the forces of Prophet Muhammad SAWW and those of his immediate successors of the Rashidun Caliphate; Caliph Abu Bakr R.A and Caliph Umar R.A during the Islamic conquest in 7th century.. The kind of love that you would travel all over the country to find. Short infantry swords like the Roman gladius and Sassanid long swords were used; long swords were usually carried by horsemen. In 638, Muslims attacked Hīt, which they found to be well fortified; thus, they left a fraction of the army to impose a siege on the city, while the rest went after Circesium. Be not harsh with your men or your officers, whom you should consult in all matters. After taking command, Khalid reorganized the army into 36 infantry regiments and four cavalry regiments, with his cavalry elite, the mobile guard, held in reserve. Emperor Heraclius had already left Antioch for Edessa before the Muslims arrived. He thus suggested to Abu Ubaidah in a council of war that he consolidate all the Muslim armies at one place to force a decisive battle with the Byzantines. Khalid moved north and raided territory up to as far as Kızılırmak River in Anatolia. The Muslim conquest of the Levant (Arabic: اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ‎, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām), also known as the Arab conquest of the Levant (Arabic: اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ‎, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām), occurred in the first half of the 7th century. khaled vs khaled (komisch en waar tegelijk) + Plaats Nieuw Onderwerp. Amr and Shurhabil accordingly marched against the strongest Byzantine garrison and defeated them in the Second Battle of Ajnadyn. Osprey Publishing. Martin Garrix Vs Khalid Ocean. The testudo formation that Gregory's army had adopted moved slowly but also had a good defence. Moreover, Thomas, in order to get more time for preparation of a siege, sent armies to delay or, if possible, halt Khalid's march to Damascus. [28] In 654–655, Uthman ordered the preparation of an expedition to capture Constantinople, but, due to unrest in the caliphate that resulted in his assassination in 655, the expedition was delayed for decades, only to be attempted unsuccessfully under the Ummayads. [m] The only early Byzantine source is Theophanes, who wrote a century later. The retreating Muslim army was met by the ferocious Arab women in the camps. [22] By 635 CE, Palestine, Jordan and Southern Syria, with the exception of Jerusalem and Caesarea, were in Muslim hands. After the skirmish, no engagement occurred for a month. The citizens were granted peace on the promise of annual tribute and the Byzantine army was given three days to go as far as they could. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The northern route was to be blocked by Muslim cavalry. Heraclius married off his daughter (according to traditions, his granddaughter) Manyanh to Yazdegerd III, to cement the alliance. [47] In late July, Vahan sent Jabalah with his lightly armoured Christian-Arab forces to reconnoiter-in-force, but they were repulsed by the mobile guard. The Muslim armies reached the plain in July. Vahan, an Armenian and the former garrison commander of Emesa,[26] was made the overall field commander,[27] and had under his command a purely Armenian army. Shaykh Ahmed Ali tells the story of how Khalid bin Waleed (RA) interacted with a Roman commander during the Battle of Yarmuk. [12] After his overwhelming victories over the Persians and their allies in the Caucasus and Armenia, Heraclius launched a winter offensive against the Persians in Mesopotamia in 627, winning a decisive victory at the Battle of Nineveh thus threatening the Persian capital city of Ctesiphon. On the orders of Umar, Yazid next besieged Caesarea, which, barring a suspension around the time of the Battle of Yarmouk, lasted until the port fell in 640. After abandoning Syria, he began to concentrate on his remaining forces for the defence of Anatolia and Egypt instead. The corps, however, managed to reorganize some distance from the camp and held their ground preparing for a counterattack. The lightly armed Byzantine troops and the archers carried a small shield, a bow hung from the shoulder across the back and a quiver of arrows. The battle is Khalid ibn al-Walid's greatest military victory and cemented his reputation as one of the greatest tacticians and cavalry commanders in history.[9]. In case the corps had to concentrate for one major battle, Abu Ubaidah was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the entire army. [49] Armour included hardened leather scale or lamellar armour and mail armour. ^ j: Some Byzantine sources also mention a fortified encampment at Yaqusah, 18 kilometres (11 mi) from the battlefield. Abu Ubaidah sent Khalid with his mobile guard towards Chalcis. Khalid ibn al-Walid, commander of Muslim army, wrote to all commanders to march at once and concentrate at Ajnadayn. He supposedly wanted time to reorganize his demoralized troops, but Khalid deemed victory to be in reach and he declined the offer. [citation needed], During a council of war, the command of the Muslim army was transferred to Khalid[i] by Abu Ubaidah, Commander in Chief of the Muslim army. There appeared to be a decided lack of resolve among the Imperial commanders, but that may have been caused by difficulties commanding the army because of internal conflict. The ravine on the west of the battlefield was accessible at a few places in 636 AD, and had one main crossing: a Roman bridge (Jisr-ur-Ruqqad) near 'Ain Dhakar[38][39] Logistically, the Yarmouk plain had enough water supplies and pastures to sustain both armies. The centre was formed by the army of Dairjan and the Armenian army of Vahan, both under the overall command of Dairjan. Despite stiff resistance, the warriors of Yazid on the left flank finally fell back to their camps and for a moment Vahan's plan appeared to be succeeding. Abu Ubaidah decided to march to Fahl, which is about 150 metres (500 ft) below sea level, where a strong Byzantine garrison and survivors of the Battle of Ajnadayn were present. According to early Muslim chronicles, Abu Bakr said, "By Allah, I shall destroy the Romans and the friends of Satan with Khalid Ibn Al Walid. Cambridge University Press, pp. The Treaty of Mecca was signed by the Caliph of Arabia, Khalid ibn al-Walid, and the Byzantine Emperor, Heraclius, in the Rashidun capital, Mecca. A week later, Abu Ubaida himself moved towards Heliopolis, where the great Temple of Jupiter stood. The conquest of Jazirah was completed by 640 CE, after which Abu Ubaidah sent Khalid and Iyad ibn Ghanm (conqueror of Jazirah) to invade Byzantine territory north of there. Abu Ubaidah, having received new intelligence, had sent Khalid. The Campaign of the Apostasy was fought and completed during the eleventh year of the Hijri. By capturing central Syria, the Muslims had given a decisive blow to the Byzantines. [2] During the Roman period, beginning after the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70, the entire region (Judea, Samaria, and the Galilee) was renamed Palaestina, subdivided into Diocese I and II. From their base in Syria, the Muslims used this fleet to capture Cyprus in 649, Crete, and Rhodes. 3 comments. 2006. u/0ri00n. The Byzantine left centre was attacked at its rear by Khalid's cavalry and was finally broken. [91], In 639–642 Muslims invaded and captured Byzantine Egypt, led by Amr ibn al-A'as, who had commanded the right flank of the Rashidun army at Yarmouk. [18], After Abu Bakr died in 634, his successor, Umar, was determined to continue the Caliphate's expansion deeper into Syria. Amr and Shurhabil's corps left to conquer the rest of Palestine, while Abu Ubaidah and Khalid, at the head of a 17,000-strong army, moved north to conquer Northern Syria. The army was organised in the Tabi'a formation, a tight, defensive infantry formation. The plain was excellent for cavalry manoeuvrers. Muhammad died in June 632, and Abu Bakr was appointed Caliph and political successor at Medina. The Byzantines had for centuries avoided engaging in large-scale decisive battles, and the concentration of their forces created logistical strains for which the empire was ill-prepared. The Byzantine commander-in-chief, Vahan, sent Ghassanid forces, under their king, Jabala, to gauge the Muslim strength. Heraclius's reinforcements were intercepted and routed at the Battle of Sanita-al-Uqab 30 km from Damascus. NC State redshirt freshman safety Khalid Martin suffered an apparent neck injury during the third quarter of Saturday's game at Virginia Tech and had to be taken from the field by ambulance. Abu Ubaidah, being an admirer of Khalid, made him commander of the cavalry and relied heavily on his advice during the whole campaign. Met 27.69 punten scoort Ron Van mozel minder dan Khalid Medyen op het gebied van werk en geld. The communication between Northern Syria and Palestine was now cut off. Yazid used his cavalry regiment to counterattack but was repulsed. ^ b: Roman source for Roman army: Vahan, who had escaped the fate of most of his men at Yarmouk, was probably killed in the ensuing fighting. Having mustered sizeable armies at Antioch, Heraclius sent them to reinforce strategically important areas of Northern Syria, like Emesa and Chalcis. Resultaten 1 tot 1 van de 1 Onderwerp: khaled vs khaled (komisch en waar … Billie eilish vs Khalid - Type 2 keywords and click on the 'Fight !' Original accounts are mostly from Arab sources, generally agreeing that the Byzantine army and their allies outnumbered the Muslim Arabs by a sizeable margin. Khalid described “Location” in an interview with Pigeons and Planes: ‘Location’ is a story of young love. After the devastating defeat at Yarmouk, the remainder of the Byzantine empire was left vulnerable. Kaegi (1995): 15,000–20,000 maximum Akram: 40,000 maximum. The battle consisted of a series of engagements that lasted for six days in August 636, near the Yarmouk River, along what are now the borders of Syria–Jordan and Syria–Israel, east of the Sea of Galilee. He blamed his wrongdoings for the loss, primarily referring to his incestuous marriage to his niece Martina. Khalid b. Walid had a lot of children in Sham including Muhajir, 'Abd Allah, Sulayman and 'Abd al-Rahman who all died because of plague in Sham. Strategically, there was only one prominence in the battlefield: a 100 m (330 ft) elevation known as Tel al Jumm'a, and for the Muslim troops concentrated there, the hill gave a good view of the plain of Yarmouk. Heavy leather sandals as well as Roman-type sandal boots were also typical of the early Muslim soldiers. Vahan deployed Jabalah's Christian Arabs, mounted on horses and camels, as a skirmishing force, screening the main army until its arrival. Byzantine Armenia fell to the Muslims in 638–39, and Heraclius created a buffer zone in central Anatolia by ordering all the forts east of Tarsus to be evacuated. [44] A unit of 500 mounted troops had been sent to block the passageway. [Intro: Khalid] Uh Yeah, yeah [Verse 1: Khalid] When I was young, I fell in love We used to hold hands, man, that was enough (Yeah) Then we grew up, started to touch The reinforcements that were sent to the Muslims at Yarmouk arrived in small bands, giving the impression of a continuous stream of reinforcements to demoralize the Byzantines to compel them to attack. To engage them at a time when Muslim armies were being outflanked in Syria was not a wise idea. [53] Heavy infantry, known as skoutatoi, had a short sword and a short spear. Archived. REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, Perang yang melibatkan Pasukan Muslimin dan Pasukan Romawi pertama kali terjadi pada tahun ke 8 Hijriah atau 629 Masehi. Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah became the new commander in chief. The Battle of Yarmouk. According to modern historians, this ingenious strategic maneuver unhinged the Byzantine defences in Syria.[18]. Abu Ubaidah accepted the offer and, rather than invading districts of Emesa and Chalcis, he consolidated his rule in conquered land and captured Hamah, and Maarrat al-Nu'man. Equal sized armies with the same composition. Khalid finally attacked and conquered Damascus on 18 September after 30 days, although, according to some sources, the siege had in fact lasted for four or six months. Moreover, with this large garrison at their rear Palestine could not be invaded. [1][28] A full-scale invasion was planned and a large force was sent to reconquer Syria. Heraclius sought to stall any battle by exploring diplomatic options while he waited for more forces to arrive from his Sassanid ally. The maximum useful range of the traditional Arabian bow was about 150 m (490 ft). The strength of the Byzantine forces, according to rough estimates, was about 100,000. During the night, Theodras advanced to Damascus to launch a surprise attack. At Shaizar, Khalid intercepted a convoy taking provisions for Chalcis. To isolate Damascus from the rest of the region, Khalid placed the detachments south on the road to Palestine and in north at the Damascus-Emesa route, and several other smaller detachments on routes towards Damascus. Who has both beauty and virtue; Encyclopædia Britannica. Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi pp. Ajay Hasia Etc vs Khalid Mujib Sehravardi &; Ors: Case Analysis. A History of Palestine. [13] The attack would result in stalling the Byzantine front and prevent a general advance of the Imperial army. Ibn Ishaq (Tabari, Vol. The Muslim right-wing infantry now attacked the Byzantine left centre at its left flank while the Muslim right centre attacked from front. Meanwhile, Heraclius' reinforcements reached Damascus before the other column of Heraclius reached the city which Khalid laid siege to on 20 August. The Rashidun army was then split into four groups: one under Amr in Palestine, one under Shurahbil in Jordan, one under Yazid in the Damascus-Caesarea region and the last one under Abu Ubaidah along with Khalid at Emesa. [21][22] In 635 Yazdegerd III, the Emperor of Persia, sought an alliance with the Byzantine Emperor. [26] When the Christians received the news of the Muslim invasion of their homeland, they abandoned the siege and hastily withdrew there. That was a strong defensive position, and the manoeuvrers pitted the Muslims and Byzantines into a decisive battle, which the latter had tried to avoid. [81], Phase 3: With the Byzantine cavalry completely routed, Khalid turned to the Byzantine left centre, which already held the two-pronged attack of the Muslim infantry. [48], Helmets used included gilded helmets similar to the silver helmets of the Sassanid empire. View Khalid vs. Burlinson fight video, highlights, news, Twitter updates, and fight results. Khalid decided to capture Damascus, the Byzantine stronghold. Umar probably had intelligence of this alliance, and started peace negotiations with Yazdegerd III, apparently inviting him to join Islam. ^ i: During the reign of Abu Bakr, Khalid ibn Walid remained the Commander-in-Chief of the army in Syria but at Umar's accession as Caliph he dismissed him from command. Gregory would strike the Muslims' right flank, approaching Emesa from the northeast via, Qanatir would march along the coastal route and occupy. And Rome and Persia were at war since the 2nd century BC, and they couldnt accomplish what Khalid did in 11 years. With the rest of the cavalry reserve he attacked Gregory's flank. [96] Although he was on the offensive five out of the six days, his battle line remained remarkably static. Khalid selected a shorter route to Syria, an unconventional route passing through the Syrian Desert. Qanatir, commanding the Byzantine left flank, which consisted of mainly Slavs, attacked in force, and the Muslim infantry on the right flank had to retreat. Heraclius then wrote a letter to his friend in Rome who was as good as Heraclius in knowledge. Britannica (2007): "More than 50,000 byzantine soldiers died". Khalid's forces withstood 3 Roman attacks that tried to break the siege, and finally attacked and conquered the city on 18 September 634 A.D after Battle of Damascus. Emesa and Chalcis offered a peace treaty for a year. [15], Moving to their assigned target beyond Tabouk, Yazid's corps made contact with a small Christian Arab force that was retreating after a skirmish with the Muslim advance guard, after which Yazid made for the Valley of Arabah where it meets the southern end of the Dead Sea. Customs inspection of goods and containers and passenger control are carried out at this centre. [14] You will come upon a people who live like hermits in monasteries, believing that they have given up all for God. On 22 August, Abu Bakr, the first caliph, died, having made Umar his successor. 337–38): 80,000 Roman troops (Kennedy, 2006, p. 145) and 60,000 allied Ghassanid troops (Gibbon, Vol. I entrust you to the care of Allah. The Byzantine imperial army was to operate under the following plan: The Muslims discovered Heraclius' preparations at Shaizar through Byzantine prisoners. Note that the descriptions of the Muslim and the Byzantine battle lines are exactly each other's opposite: the Muslim right wing faced the Byzantine left wing (see image[n]). [16] The Muslim invasion of Syria was a series of carefully planned and well-co-ordinated military operations, which employed strategy, instead of pure strength, to deal with the Byzantine defensive measures. After dealing with all these cities, Khalid moved towards Damascus through a mountain pass which is now known as Sanita-al-Uqab (Uqab Pass) after the name of Khalid's army standard. He was told almost unanimously and accepted the fact that the defeat was God's decision and a result of the sins of the people of the land, including him. One of these armies was defeated at the Battle of Yaqusa in mid-August near Lake Tiberias, 145 kilometres (90 mi) from Damascus. Thus the centre remained stable, but on the wings the situation was different. Nevertheless, many of the soldiers managed to escape the slaughter. [5] Thus, on the eve of the Muslim conquests the Romans (or Byzantines as modern Western historians conventionally refer to Romans of this period) were still in the process of rebuilding their authority in these territories, which in some areas had been lost to them for almost twenty years. Khalid reached the battlefield and defeated the garrison on 15 October and returned with tons of looted booty from the fair and hundreds of Roman prisoners. To the west and south of the Dead Sea lay the province of Palestine. Many Muslim soldiers lost their sight to Byzantine arrows on that day, which thereafter became known as the "Day of Lost Eyes". When you meet the enemy turn not your back on him; for whoever turns his back, except to manoeuvre for battle or to regroup, earns the wrath of Allah. Meanwhile, Heraclius' reinforcements reached Damascus before the other column of Heraclius reached the city which Khalid laid siege to on 20 August. While engaged with Sassanid forces, he also confronted the Ghassanids, Arab clients of the Byzantines. Khalid also tanks better with higher DEX and CON, but I don't think any NPC tanks as well as Kagain + Gauntlets of DEX. Menas, diverting from conventional Byzantine tactics, decided to face Khalid and destroy the leading elements of Muslim army before the main body could join them at Hazir 5 kilometres (3 mi) east of Chalcis. Heraclius defeated them with far fewer battles to his name. The Muslims then continued their conquest across the Levant. Heraclius, having received the news of the fall of Damascus, left for Antioch from Emesa. The three-pronged attack forced the Byzantine left wing to abandon the Muslim positions they had gained on, and Amr regained his lost ground and started reorganizing his corps for another round. [87] He summoned a meeting of his advisers at the cathedral and scrutinized the situation. As the Muslim forces were geographically divided, Heraclius sought to exploit that situation and planned to attack. Abu Ubaidah ordered the concentration of troops in the vast plain near Jabiya, as control of the area made cavalry charges possi… From here they could engage Amr's corps and maneuver against the flank or rear of the rest of the Muslim corps that were in Jordan and Southern Syria. The left wing was under the command of Yazid and the right wing was under Amr ibn al-A'as. There was a Byzantine and Christian Arab garrison nearby, but the size of the garrison was miscalculated by the Muslim informants. Battle. This act to mov… Perang ini disebut Perang Mu'tah, karena terjadi di Mu'tah, wilayah Syam-kini sebelah timur sungai Yordan. [62] The same tactic would be repeated again during the Battle of Qadisiyah. Alert to the possibility of being caught with separated forces, which could be destroyed, Khalid called for a council of war and advised Abu Ubaidah to pull the troops back from Palestine and Northern and Central Syria and then to concentrate the entire Rashidun army in one place. View Lazaar vs. van Venrooij fight video, highlights, news, Twitter updates, and fight results. The army's right flank was on the Jabiyah road in the north across the heights of Tel al Jumm'a,[46] with substantial gaps between the divisions so that their frontage would match that of the Byzantine battle line at 13 kilometres (8.1 mi). Encamping in the region was also precarious as a strong Byzantine force was garrisoned in Caeseara and could attack the Muslim rear while they were held in front by the Byzantine army. Large wooden or wickerwork shields were used. By forcing the Muslims to retreat, or by destroying Muslim forces separately, he would fulfil his strategy of recapturing lost territory. Heraclius (Latin: Flavius Heraclius Augustus, Greek: Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, Armenian: Հերակլես Փլավիոս, c. 575 – February 11, 641) was Byzantine Emperor from 610 to 641.. In 622, Heraclius finally launched his offensive. Treadgold (1997): 24,000. I came to the conclusion that Khalid was a military genius, that there was no sandstorm to explain the disastrous Byzantine defeat and then dug deep to decide on numbers. [44], Khalid sent out several scouts to keep the Byzantines under observation. 352–53, Hadrat 'Umar Farooq by Prof. Masud-ul-Hasan, Islamic Publications Ltd 13-E, Shah Alam Market, Lahore, Pakistan, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, ten companions promised paradise by Muhammad, Muslims invaded and captured Byzantine Egypt, Al-Waqidi, Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Umar, Chronicle of Pseudo-Dionysius of Tell-Mahre, Yarmouk in Sword of Allah at GrandeStrategy,, Articles with Armenian-language sources (hy), Articles with disputed statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Used in the first week of April 634, the first Caliph due. 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