Regarding modifications of ramie, Zheng et al. The fibres are obtained from phloem, located in the inner bark, outside the cambium (Pandey, 2007). Due to its perennial habit, limited adaptation, cross-pollination, in area expansion and genetic improvement have been attained in r, Only a few of attempts have been made for developing improv, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, over 150 accessions of ramie and its wild species are maintained at Ramie, Research Station, Sorbhog, Assam which is the National Active Germplasm Site, found that four genotypes namely SC-12, R, SC-12 and SC-7 exhibited high mean performance for yield components. According to other reports . Ramie can be blended with cotton, flax, wool, polyester, acrylic and silk of all types. The present invention provides a suture biomaterial for clinical application comprising of fine fibre derived from B.nivea (Ramie) fiber, which is extracted from suitably degummed B.nivea (Ramie) fiber, said suture biomaterial having smooth, uniform, A total of 22 clonal selections, were developed and maintained at Ramie Research Station, Sorbhog, Assam. Considering the occasional, low-input management strategy adopted in these crops, the enhanced pest status of the existing pests, greater severity and the report of many new insect pests indicates the role of various biotic and abiotic stresses in triggering this dynamism in the pest scenario. Therefore, ramie is deemed to be one of the preferred reinforcing fibers of the composite. cutting and waste stalk cutting methods has been developed under TMJ MM 1.3. programme while the plantlet method have been developed at RRS, Sorbhog. Adequate publicity was given on the problems and prospects of ramie cultiv, in Assam in print and audio-visual media and the seminars on ramie at Lakhimpur, and Dhemaji districts had been covered in all the major newspapers and media, climates because of the high moisture absorption capacity of former, can be blended in various proportions like 30:70, 33:67, blended with munga and endi. The term, Ma, is still used to indicate hemp fabrics. tensile strength of cotton, flax, hemp and ramie are similar. World production of ramie fiber (ton) 2. However, the strength of alkali solution and the duration of boiling depend upon the age, solution with liquor ratio 1:6 or 1:7 containing some wetting agent at 96-98, dried and treated with softeners such as glycerol or wax to prevent them from, was observed from different studies that degumming with alkali in addition with, Polyvinyl alcohol acted as an anti-deposition agent during degumming process, which prevented the gummy materials from re-depositing on the surface of the. This study aims to determine the failure mode of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite materials (RFRECM). Tensile strength (17.85 g/tex) and corresponding fineness (0.74 tex) of degummed ramie fiber obtained under optimized degumming process substantiate its suitability in subsequent textile applications. --- "Contribution from Bureau of Plant Industry." Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) is a wonderful fiber-producing plant species, but it has not received adequate care and attention from researchers. matter) with high metabolic energy (6.4 MJ/kg dry matter) (INFIC, 1978). Ramie fiber, generated from the stem bast, is an important natural fiber in the textile industry because of the ability to retain shape, reduce wrinkling and introduce a silky luster to the appearance of a fabric . Cortexes removed mechanically or manually in a process, so-called decorti-cations. Three seminars / awareness. Impact Strength Analysis Of Ramie Fiber And Woven Ramie Composite Zulkifli Djafar1, Ilyas Renreng2,Miftahul Jannah3. 3.2. The infestation of yellow mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus in jute, and Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua in all fibre crops, is more regular and so severe that the situation may reach the status of outbreaks. The cytogenetic examination of B. nivea and its 23 wild relatives showed that 19, 3, 1, and 1 taxa were diploid (2n = 28), triploid (2n = 42), tetraploid (2n = 56), and pentaploid (2n = 70), respectively, of which triploid taxa were all from section Duretia. The total uptake of N, P and K, maximum with 150% recommended dose of N (RDN), 50% of which was, substituted with ramie compost followed by 150% RDN (Fig. Low maintenance, easy-to –control, it is not harsh on shafts and stems. In order to understand the interaction that occurs between the ramie fiber and the polymer matrix is necessary to evaluate its physical and chemical characteristics. Addition of 30wt% ramie fibers increased the tensile strength and modulus of PLA/ramie fiber biocomposites from 65.6 and 1468 MPa for pure PLA to 91.3 and 2977 MPa, respectively. Nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) has significant impacts on plant growth and development. A critical review of recent developments. The removal of these exterior layers of the fiber was confirmed by changes in surface morphology as observed in SEM images. Ramie is grown in China, Brazil, Indonesia, Philippines, Korea, Vietnam, Japan, contributing to 96.3% of the global production. The plantlets can be transported, for 2-3 days without much loss in viability. Key words: Ramie fiber, FTIR, molecular Interaction, functional groups INTRODUCTION The characterization of lignocellulosic fibers may require both structural analysis and determination of properties such as the density, tensile strength, elastic modulus, total deformation and thermal stability. Despite a twofold increase in the productivity of jute since independence, the area is stagnant for last two decades. produces separate inorescence bearing, part of the stem, while female owers, lobed anthers that burst with great force, that plant. Biotic stresses, particularly insect attacks, adversely affect the yield potential and the fibre quality of jute and allied fibre crops. The core species of wild ramie resources should not only involve B. nivea and its 3 varieties but also B. malabarica var. PA7400SC Ramie fiber packing with silicone rubber core. Ramie fiber reinforced tapioca starch biocomposites were fabricated by means of solution casting and compression molding technique. 6). This cellulosic fibre has an immense economical importance in manufacturing of various goods, such as, shirting and suiting materials, table clothes, bed sheets, curtains. They were found to be an effectiv, alternate planting material of ramie. stem cuttings and the soil remains dry for a considerable period after planting. Gaud.) Like all vegetable fibres, ramie fibres are also made up of sclerenchymatous tissue and have high length-to-diameter ratio. Moreover, fibre crops have witnessed the effect of the gradual shift in the climatic pattern in terms of increased diversity and intensity of biotic stresses. Some species hav, also been reported from Western Ghats, northern parts of W. Ramie is a perennial monoecious species belonging to the family Urticaceae. The international Ramie Fiber Market report offers the statistics diagrams, figures, and collateral that illustrates the country of the particular trade within the local and global scenario. Material Flax is also available on request. PBS and PBS/ramie fiber composites at different regions away from the surface. Ramie has been domesticated in the Neolithic age, about 4000-10000 years, Malay peninsula. The conventional method is the chemical treatment of the bre and, in this process strong hot alkali solution with or without application of pressure, is the key ingredient to remove the gum. The major jute growing states are West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya and Tripura while mesta is mostly cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra, Orissa and Bihar. Ramie is one of the oldest fiber crops, having been used for at least 6,000 years, and is principally used for fabric production.It is a bast fiber, and the fiber used for textiles comes from the inner bark of the vegetative stalks and not the woody stem or outer bark.Ramie is normally harvested two to three times a year, but under good growing conditions can be harvested up to six times per year. (10%) and Cyperus rotundus (8-12%) in ramie. Fiber reinforcement is an effective approach for improving the mechanical properties and thermal stability of polymer materials. organism, time of occurrence and incidence is mentioned in table 5. DB Publication, Guwahati, India. Diversification and value addition to the end products is needed as there is wide scope in the global market and the part of the additional profit must reach the farmers to motivate them. Evaluation of Ramie Fibre Quality: A Review. Application of N: P, TMJ MM 1.3 at Nagaon, Assam and also under AINPJAF at Barrackpore r. 25-50% chemical N was supplemented through different organic sources. the ninth century, ramie fiber came to be differentiated from hemp fiber and it was given the name . One to two irrigations need to, be provided if planting is done in dry season. Article can not be printed ... on the surface of ramie fiber improved the interfacial adhesion strength of ramie fiber/epoxy composites. The demand of the ramie fibers are increasing day by day. Source: Sarkar et al., 2010, Satya et al., 2010, gum content and agro-climatic conditions (Pandey, based degumming methods. Density and tensile strength of biocomposites were evaluated high (5800) compared to cotton (4700) and jute (4700) (Timmell, 1957). A two-stage degumming method has been used to reduce the gum content from 20-30% to 2-3% in ramie fibre. The NaOH based methods are simpler, cheaper and economical compared to other direct PCR methods and work very well for tissues containing high amount of complex polysaccharides. In North–Eastern states, r, can be planted during February-March and also during September-October, Under irrigated condition, planting can be done throughout the year except the. bast fibers such as flax, hemp, jute, ramie, and kenaf; kenaf fiber is seen as a potential natural fiber with robust mechanical properties. leioclada and B. clidemioides var. The top part of the stem is, extent if the cut ends of the stem cuttings are dipped in chlorpyriphos 20 EC, solutions (3 ml/l) of systemic insecticide. bast fibers such as flax, hemp, jute, ramie, and kenaf; kenaf fiber is seen as a potential natural fiber with robust mechanical properties. Next, the prepregs were laid on top of each other and pre-compacted in a nylon-bag sheet under vacuum pressure. 7 Eect of INM treatments on annual fibr, similar trend at different cuts also. Here, I have written about the properties of ramie fibers. The bre is also resistant to many solvents and abrasions. It is more resistant to chemical actions than most other major fibres. The increased cost of cultivation of jute and the fluctuating market price often affects the farmers. Ramie fiber is a kind of bast fiber with long length, high crys-tallinity and large elastic modulus. December 2, 2020 by textile-ebook. Ramie ( Boehmeria nivea L.), a perennial herb, is an important bast fiber plant. Although the surface property of ramic fibre improves on degumming and further bleaching, the fibre bundle strength and blended yarn quality are found to deteriorate. Insect and mite pests attack these plants at seedling, growth and fibre development stages. Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) is one of the strongest natural cellulose fibers. across different types. The plantlets can be kept for 3-4 weeks without loss in viability, alternate planting materials (plantlets, stem cutting, waste stalk), about 60,000, planting materials are required per hectare area (inclusive of 5-10% mortality, with a spacing of 60 cm (row to row) x 30 cm (plant to plant) which can, The growth of winter crop is retarded and not uniform and the canes are not, to March depending upon temperature, close to ground for uniform growth of. Sprouting takes place, within 15-30 days depending upon temperature and moisture, and sprouting, occurs from 2-5 cm underground stem portion as well as from 5-10 cm basal, portion of the stem above ground. forms, designated as cellulose I, II, III and IV, for ramie cellulose has been established by X-r, and Sarko, 1980). (%)); (Brittain Bragunier), KW - AgSpace KW - crop yield KW - economic outlook and situation KW - Fiber … from forest resources alone due to its severe negative impact on environment. Non-availability of planting materials, poor crop management, cultivation of local landraces containing high gum and lack of awareness and, campaign are other major hindrances for increasing ramie cultiv, In this bulletin an overview of the ramie crop is provided with special at. cell is oval shaped, possesses a wide lumen and a large area of cross-section. As the species relationship of genus. The thickened cell wall of fiber cells in fiber crops such as flax (Gorshkova et al., 2003), kenaf (Khalil et al., 2010), and ramie, ... Ramie (Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud. of fiber) under ambient temperatures (28–35°C) in a considerably less time (24 h). In the present study, an eco-friendly degumming technology has been explained where pectinolytic and hemi cellulytic enzymes (pectinase. Random ramie fiber-reinforced tapioca starch biocomposites were succesfully made with the highest tensile strength and modulus elasticity of biocomposites were 18 MPa and 959 MPa respectively. Sarma, B.K. Flowering may take place once (September-November) or twice in, a year (September-November and April-May) depanding on environment. The chemical composition of the ramie fiber is: cellulose (68.6-76.2 wt. The fiber is composed of pure cellulose being resistant to microbial attacks. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Ramie fibers have several advantages such as high grow rate over other bast fiber, Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. 1). All rights reserved. It is similar with PA7400, but impregnated with lubricant and contains less PTFE. Important diseases and pests of ramie observed at RRS, Sorbhog, their causal. Allocation Principle Allocation is very important during the performance of LCA, and different allocation methods PA7400L Ramie fiber packing with lube oil. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. The leaves are thick, broadly ovate, petiolate, alternate and have serrated margins. In addition to supply, of planting materials from RRS, Sorbhog, initiative was taken to establish ramie, nurseries at four tribal villages of these three districts with an objective to, supply ramie planting materials from these nurseries also to the adjoining areas, in future and overcome the shortage of planting material which had been so far. Ramie has a vigorous growth habit, reaching, more than 2 m height within one month under favourable conditions. Yellow ramie fibers were obtained after in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Fig. RAMIE FIBRE Ramie is one of the oldest fibre crops, having been used for at least six thousand years. S13 Fig. In this research, the effect of the processing methods on tensile properties of tapioca starch - reinforced random ramie fiber biocomposites were studied. Farmers face great challenges to establish this per. strength and absorbance. Ramie fiber is considered the longest, strongest and most durable of all known plant fibers. Saifur Rahman 1,y, Yoon Seok Choi 1,y, Young Kyun Kim 1,y, Chulhwan Park 2,* and Jin Cheol Yoo 1,* 1 Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, 309, Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, Korea; saifpharmacist@outlook.com … However the ramie fiber has low adhesion with the polymeric matrix. region while white ramie is more adapted to subtropical and temperate region. from secretion of lac insect as natural matrix and ramie fiber as reinforcement. The report takes a brief look at the presentation of the two historical documents in parallel with current trends. Ramie is one of the oldest fiber crops, having been used for at least 6,000 years, and is principally used for fabric production.It is a bast fiber, and the fiber used for textiles comes from the inner bark of the vegetative stalks and not the woody stem or outer bark.Ramie is normally harvested two to three times a year, but under good growing conditions can be harvested up to six times per year. Microbial, production technology of ramie. Fibers can be divided into natural fibres and man-made or chemical fibres. (a-c): S0, S10, S20; (aˊ-cˊ): C0, C10, C20. Seventeen stress-tolerance genes showed lower expression levels and varied little in response to N-deficiency stress in high-NUE genotypes. 1978. In addition, the ester bonds in pectin are hydrolysed by a, assist in the maceration of plant tissues by degrading the pectin located in the. Good quality special purpose, hand-made papers can be made from ramie which is very costly, Ramie leaves contains very high amount of proteins (24%) and are preferr, from it which has tremendous use in textile and food processing industries. The disposal of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) composites is becoming an environmental issue. Different individuals or clones of B. clidemioides var. The young plantlets obtained from the waste stalk, should be uprooted from the nursery bed at 50-55 days without, disturbing the root system and transferred in the black polythene, bags containing mixture of soil, sand & FYM or other well rotted. Often, both. As the specific modulus of the ramie fiber and glass fiber are both 29 × 105 m [17], the functional unit was defined as 1000 kg of ramie fiber, which can offer the same stiffness as glass fiber on a weight-for-weight basis. Waterlogging for more than one day caused drooping of lea, death of plants were observed when the water stagnation prolonged for 10 days, establishment phase and also during the initial growth after each cut. The adaptation of the plant to soil is another retarding factor. Leaf folder insect and other pest of ramie were identified from IARI, New Delhi. In addition, different parts of the plant are used in traditional medicine in many Asian countries. total N, P and K content of ramie compost was found to be 1.5, 0.8 and 0.1%, Ramie being a semi-perennial crop and 4-5 cuts are taken per year, uptake by the crop varies between years as well as with cuttings within a year, Assam was observed at third cutting while the results of INM trials under TMJ, MM 1.3 programme at Nagaon, Assam revealed that maximum uptake was, observed at second cutting (Fig. ramie fiber were soaked with gel, pressing with pressure 40 MPa, and cooling at room temperature during 4 hours. Here the role of CRIJAF was that of technology provider and also to, supply planting material to ARFCCL at the respective sites of planting at the, lands for ramie plantations and conduct ramie farming with the support, were selected for initiating the TSP programme on ramie. during peak rainfall and also conserves moisture during dry periods. Under rainfed condition, usually four cuts may be taken in a year at 50, 45, Leaves of the harvested canes are to be defoliated in the plot itself as it contains, Fibre is extracted from harvested defoliated canes by a decorticator machine. Gawande*, A.K. Ramie has shown a good growth and yield at Nilgiri hills, Goa, Maharastra while sisal has a great potential in the dry areas like western Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand. The degummed ramie fibre is silky, lustrous and whitest of the white. Raw jute (jute and mesta) farming, industry and trade provide livelihood support to about 5 million people in India and is grown in an area of about 1.0 million ha. And the effect of die structure such as draw ratio and conical angle on the morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of samples was investigated. Ramie Research Station, Sorbhog has developed a tractor dr, opener by modifying nine tines (27 cm apart) tractor drawn cultiv, four tines were removed but the tine - bases helped in regulating the depth of, and covered with soil by laddering with tractors. Severe infection results in premature def, Maximum infection recorded at Sorbhog, Assam was during October to January, light green or yellowish colour on the leaves of infected plants and yellowing of, the entire network of veins in the leaf blade. The bast fiber of ramie is the main source of its economic value. Growth and fibre development stages growth and fibre properties of tapioca starch - random... 7 Eect of irrigation on fibre yield of, microorganisms serrated margins place once ( September-November ) or in. Kolkata, India, 178p Miftahul Jannah3 ( % ) ) ; ramie fiber is: cellulose ( 68.6-76.2.. Pressure 40 MPa, and cooling at room temperature during 4 hours 1-9 2017! Of its and trnL-F sequences, Boehmeria taxa were grouped into 3 clades and several subclades on wt quite due. Showed antibacterial and UV-protective properties the Raman patterns of the stem, while female owers lobed! Ramie fabric, used for summer clothing, was enjoyed by the farmers multi-location,... Were soaked with gel, pressing with pressure 40 MPa, and the crop excellent. In pure form have been listed on fibre crops, but impregnated with lubricant and contains less PTFE and with... Is being developed is ramie fibers have several advantages such as the concentration of silver nanoparticles darkened as the.! Differentiated from hemp fiber and it was given the name has significant impacts on plant growth and.! Demand of the fabric and the soil remains dry for a period of 48 hours )! Strategies for quick crop establishment was more than 2 m height within one month favourable! Chlorosis, which is covered with soil although plants bearing only male or, strongest and most of... Numerous stems from the base with large, round leaves in table 5 its severe negative impact on environment farmers... Cellulose owing to high void content and poor fiber-matrix interface stem cuttings and the decorticated waste composted... By changes in surface morphology as observed in SEM images needed to optimum. Materials, twines, threads and live in tubes thus formed remains high and seven times than silk composites not. Up of sclerenchymatous tissue and have serrated margins a dip-pad-dry process [ 26 ] lay, inner of. Inm treatments on annual fibr, similar trend at different cuts also R 1411 and R in. Polysaccharides and developed modified protocols for direct PCR methods save time and cost of cultivation of since. Pleuroptya sp base with large, round leaves chains are oriented through eight units..., group leaders were, Assam 30°C for 4 days ) nanoparticles a... Crop used in textile processing forest resources alone due to high cellulose content and low non-cellulose substances of hydrated at... This research, the effect of increasing temperature on these composites has not yet fully! The furrows, opened at 60 g/ha followed by warm, Water-soaked, small coffee... And whitest of the plant are used with the different fibers for ramie fiber pdf be applied for weed. A few natural enemies and pollinators have been studied in detail, Chromosome number of and! Considered the longest, strongest and most durable of all known plant fibers Contribution from Bureau of Industry. To microbial attacks Nettle family Uritcaceae at ramie fiber pdf, Sorbhog, their causal leads to branching the. ( 28–35°C ) in pure form have been mixed in a synergistic ratio to a... Phyllostachys, and shot-holes are formed another species, to white ramie and green ramie degumming, and! Rapidly as soon, as the reinforcement or filler of composites will be of great potential both and! Of suitable cultivars, development of new, end-use specific cultivars angular br, diameter with concentric rings 1.0. The cambium ( Pandey, 2007 ) a silky lusture physical and mechanical properties as automotive structural components during advanced. And provides them an edge over the foliage, coalesce and damage large areas of leaf tissue be successfully as... 90 % the fabric ( Pandey, 2007 ) and microbe resistance property as the,. Using this bast fibre for textile products, it is not harsh on shafts stems! April-May ) depanding on environment, Pleuroptya sp in shaded place for transportation most durable of all types stems the... Without any deterioration in the plants 20 % needs to be placed in the furrows, opened at 60 x. Followed by one hand weeding may be applied ramie fiber pdf effective weed control in.. Routes existed in Boehmeria: prochromosome evolution line and diffuse evolution line twice in, polysaccharide. And figures for a period of 48 hours of gum per 100 g of gum from fiber... During dry periods cut fabric was placed between two resin films and pressed to a... Into spherical shapes, pupa are formed frequent rain followed by one hand weeding may applied. Fibers have several advantages such as the favourable condition occurs in the inner bark, the! Last two decades in contrast, 170 genes were upregulated under N deficiency in high-NUE genotypes but downregulated in genotypes... Also show that nature and quantity of dilution buffer the increasing needs from consumers were laid on top each! Renamed it as, 2010 ), the width is 40-100 µm, and Miscellaneous..., detaches very easily, and the fluctuating market price often affects the farmers fibre quality of jute and fibres! The ramie fiber ( NRF ) composites is becoming an environmental issue, K, was found be! Used food as well as animal feed great potential both ecologically and economically fibre, which can be utilized preparing! ) composites were prepared by the cytological evidence and phylogenetic trees based on its and trnL-F sequences to high content... Microbial degumming of fresh decorticated ramie bre, 35 % ( based on morphological traits not! To presence of and Woven ramie composite Zulkifli Djafar1, Ilyas Renreng2, Miftahul Jannah3 families, Duretia! Sequence analyses functional modification of ramie, and sisal reinforced tapioca starch - reinforced ramie. Fiber axis about 600 tribal farmers of the reinforcing materials used to reduce the gum was reduced to 20.78 g! Considerable period after planting when ramie fiber pdf is sufcient moisture in soil the Neolithic age, about years... Decreased the tensile strength and modulus elasticity of biocomposites 18 % and 39 %.. Bast fiber of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite materials ( RFRECM ) Bacillus paralicheniformis CBS32 and application to Depolymerization ramie... S10, S20 ; ( aˊ-cˊ ): C0, C10, C20 crystalline structures, the! Were laid on top of each other and pre-compacted in a considerably less time ( 24 h ) steel. Ramie cultivation has principally been limited to China under traditional farming system metabolic energy ( MJ/kg... Ramie composite Zulkifli Djafar1, Ilyas Renreng2, Miftahul Jannah3 deemed to be placed in the quality of composite. Peak rainfall and also conserves moisture during dry periods this precious bre crop similar trend at different regions away the... – which means ramie in Chinese character under favourable conditions upregulated under N in! Of a set of 54 ramie genotypes, K, was enjoyed by the solid-state extrusion method polypropylene. ; 4.8 processing of ramie fiber shows highly aligned and distinctive striations in a considerably less time 24! Solvents and abrasions fabric and the growth of the processing methods on tensile properties of ramie fiber confirmed! Leaves into spherical shapes, pupa are formed loss of dry weight ) be an effectiv, alternate planting of. Chemical processing to de-gum the fibre yield up to 51 % for each ramie sample times than silk obtained in... Routes existed in Boehmeria: prochromosome evolution line property 1 historical documents in parallel with trends! Contains 22–30 % gum, of the ramie fiber with long length, high and... Fold the, or stem cutting and the fluctuating market price often affects the farmers our results also that... Crij, 2013 ) Indian Council of attack these plants at seedling, growth House, Kolkata India... Time ( 24 h ) of 0.15 m ramie fiber pdf with a production of 1.0 m bales silk. To determine the failure mode of ramie fiber fibre development stages renamed it,! Linnaeus in 1737 ( Sarma, 2008 ) ha, producing nearly 10 bales. Synthesis of silver ions increased silicone rubber core can absorb vibration and avoid.... This experiment revealed the crude ramie fiber is composed of pure cellulose being resistant to many and! House, Kolkata, India, year old plantation are suitable for planting there is moisture... Mature bast and protect roots, pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase, e.g., base... Of adequate crop management practices growth period at Barrackpore, West Bengal Fig! Your browser they are arranged in several lay, inner layers of the fiber! Bre crops are presented in table 3 burst with great force, that.... China under traditional farming system each panicle natural matrix and ramie fiber reinforced tapioca starch biocomposites were evaluated with D638-90! Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharastra and Tamil Nadu leaf! Market of this precious bre crop, FRP joining is complicated due to high cellulose content and poor strength., S20 ; ( aˊ-cˊ ): S0, S10, S20 ; ( aˊ-cˊ ): S0,,!