Neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control: the role of prefrontal cortex in action selection, response inhibition, performance monitoring, and reward-based learning. It’s a matter of time: reframing the development of cognitive control as a modification of the brain’s temporal dynamics. Rev. Differential effects of cognitive inhibition and intelligence on creativity. 42, 1373–1382. Psychol. The only notable decrease in the correlation between the CCFQ and depressive symptoms appeared to occur when controlling for perseverative thinking and rumination. Demystifying cognitive flexibility: implications for clinical and developmental neuroscience. doi: 10.1037/a0037913, Chermahini, S. A., and Hommel, B. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. For instance, (fluid) intelligence as well as creativity and divergent thinking have been suggested to be expressions of cognitive control and of cognitive flexibility (Colzato et al., 2006; Chermahini and Hommel, 2010; Nijstad et al., 2010; Benedek et al., 2012; Ferguson et al., 2017). Neurosci. Although mental defeat and cognitive flexibility did not reach the level of the healthy control group, they demonstrated improvement. “Stress: appraisal and coping,” in Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine, eds Marc Gellman and J. Rick Turner (New York, NY: Springer), 1913–1915. Scores on the CCFQ were strongly associated with greater depressive symptoms, even after controlling for other measures that had been taken to reflect cognitive control and (in)flexibility (e.g., the Ruminative Response Scale; Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire). B., Levy, R., LeBastard, G., Lehéricy, S., et al. Standardized predictor, mediator, and outcome variables were used in Model 4 of PROCESS, with 95% Confidence Intervals (C.I.) In a stressful situation, this might entail focusing on threat-related information and that which is conducive to eliminating a stressor, and away from non-essential information. Partial correlations between the CCFQ and validation measures of cognitive control and cognitive (in)flexibility after controlling for the Alternatives and Control subscales of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. For example, T1 represents the length of time between the collection of cortisol sample 1 (Cort1) and sample 2 (Cort2). Generally, cognitive control refers to the ability to focus on information that is currently relevant to a particular goal, while inhibiting information that is not relevant (Morton et al., 2011). As expected, the CCFQ was correlated with the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, suggesting some degree of content overlap between the two questionnaires. Participants in the community sample comprised 302 (n = 253 females, 49 males) individuals living in Canada with a mean age of 32.83 (SD = 10.36 years). In the community sample, the item ‘I can remain in control of my thoughts and emotions’ loaded more strongly on the appraisal and coping flexibility component of the CCFQ. Prev. Models were compared using chi-square difference tests (Δχ2) with appropriate re-scaling. Psychol. Johnco, C., Wuthrich, V. M., and Rapee, R. M. (2014). Folkman, S., and Lazarus, R. S. (1986). Ther. Sci. Furthermore, diminished cognitive control over emotion was linked to elevated and prolonged cortisol reactivity following an acute challenge, a neuroendocrine profile that has been associated with depressive illness (Juruena et al., 2017). Cognitive inflexibility among ruminators and nonruminators. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Indeed, it is in the measurement of coping processes that the two measures overlap the most with respect to content, which is most noticeable by their relationship to the versatility in coping subscale of the Coping Flexibility Questionnaire. Front. Together, these findings suggest that the CCFQ taps into processes related to effective coping. Isen, A. M. (2008). Responses to all questions tend to … Cognitive reappraisal increases neuroendocrine reactivity to acute social stress and physical pain. Stress regulation and cognitive control: Evidence relating cortisol reactivity and neural responses to errors. The neural bases of uninstructed negative emotion modulation. The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (BI-AAQ) assesses cognitive flexibility and acceptance of body image.This study was done to assess the validity and reliability of the Persian version of BI-AAQ, as an instrument to measure body image flexibility, in patients with somatic symptom and related disorders.This descriptive psychometric study was done in 2017 on 357 patients … Given that stressful situations are often accompanied by negative emotional responses, cognitive control and flexibility in this context might inherently be tied to the regulation of emotions (e.g., reducing negative emotions or increasing positive emotions through cognitive control). J. Clin. Stressful events are inherently emotional experiences, and the provocation of negative affective states can influence cognition by biasing information processing toward mood-congruent material (Okon-Singer et al., 2015). Moreover, although the present research focused on depressive symptoms, the CCFQ might also be useful in relation to other psychiatric disorders that have been associated with impaired cognitive control and flexibility, including anxiety (e.g., obsessive–compulsive disorder), substance use, bipolar, and eating disorders (Cunha et al., 2010; Gruner and Pittenger, 2017; O’Donnell et al., 2017; Park and Moghaddam, 2017; Perpiñá et al., 2017). Notably, the hypothesized model with the residual correlations provided a good fit to the data, χ2(108) = 132.353, p = 0.06, CFI = 0.991, and RMSEA = 0.025. A., and Buhle, J. T. (2012). doi: 10.1126/science.1168450, Harvey, P. O., Fossati, P., Pochon, J. 53, 79–92. 19, 468–478. Cognition 174, 94–102. Dennis, J. P., and Vander Wal, J. S. (2010). Perceptions of threat and uncontrollability, in turn, partially accounted for the association between CCFQ subscale scores and depressive symptoms. Yet, the direct effect of appraisal and coping flexibility on depressive symptoms remained significant after accounting for all 6 appraisal dimensions, c’ = -0.303, SE = 0.045, p < 0.001. doi: 10.1080/02699930903407948, Joormann, J., Yoon, K. L., and Zetsche, U. These findings suggest that the CCFQ captures aspects of cognitive control and of cognitive flexibility that might be relevant to stressful situations. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Neurosci. Ther. Front. Thus, in the context of a stressful situation, cognitive flexibility might be observed through the ability to generate multiple coping strategies, and to flexibly adjust them according to changing stressor demands. As a final objective, the present study determined whether the CCFQ was able to capture aspects of cognitive control/flexibility that might be relevant to depressive disorders that are not measured by other questionnaires related to this construct. Trends Cogn. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to examine the relation between components of the CCFQ, validation measures, and depressive symptoms. The 18-item CCFQ was used to measure individual differences in cognitive control over emotion (α = 0.88) and appraisal and coping flexibility (α = 0.91). This effect was unique to cognitive control over emotion as the variation in appraisal and coping flexibility did not moderate the effects of stressor condition on cortisol response, ΔR2 = 0.01, F(1,35) = 0.24, p = 0.63. Weight Disord. The Kaiser measure of sampling adequacy was 0.92 and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity was χ2(153) = 2704.62, p < 0.001. In this sense, using valid and theoretically grounded measures of cognitive flexibility is critical. All items are rated on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly Agree). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Atypical depression and non-atypical depression: Is HPA axis function a biomarker? Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. 10:434. doi: 10.1038/nrn2639, Mackie, M. A., Van Dam, N. T., and Fan, J. 1:59. doi: 10.1038/35036228, Monsell, S. (2003). Res. Neuropsychologia 46, 224–232. Psych. Individual differences in reappraisal effectiveness: the role of affective flexibility. Aging Neurosci. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck et al., 1961) is a widely used 21-item measure that assesses the intensity of depressive symptoms. The cognitive control of emotion. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003) is a 10-item questionnaire assessing individual differences in the habitual use of two emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. The two subscales exhibited excellent inter-item reliability, and were moderately correlated (r = 0.61). Rheumatol. These findings were unique to cognitive control over emotion, as the appraisal and coping flexibility component of the CCFQ did not moderate the effects of stressor condition on negative affect, ΔR2 = 0.02, F(1,42) = 1.72, p = 0.20. To this end, a brief (18-item) self-report measure – the Cognitive Control and Flexibility Questionnaire (CCFQ) – was developed. The CCFQ was used to measure cognitive control over emotion (α = 0.91) and appraisal and coping flexibility (α = 0.90) processes. Psychol. The intra- and inter-assay variability was <10%. However, the conceptualization and assessment of control differs substantially between the two measures. Psychiatry 54, 200–207. Promax-rotated, Principal Components Analysis of the CCFQ in a student and community sample. Participants were also told they were being videotaped during the TSST. Although mental defeat and cognitive flexibility did not reach the level of the healthy control group, they demonstrated improvement. The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis and Vander Wal, 2010) is a 20-item measure that assesses two aspects of cognitive flexibility: (1) the ability to perceive multiple alternative explanations for life occurrences and to generate multiple alternative solutions to difficult situations (alternatives), (2) and the tendency to perceive difficult situations as controllable (control). This said, it is important to acknowledge the high correlation between the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and the cognitive control over emotions component of the CCFQ, which suggests a high degree of overlap between the two measures and potential redundancy. A PCA with Promax rotation was conducted to determine whether the factor structure of the final (18-item) CCFQ observed in the student sample matched that of a community sample. A behavioral analysis of degree of reinforcement and ease of shifting to new responses in a Weigl-type card-sorting problem. Statements: 36 Duration: 10–15 minutes Type: screening tool Authors: Peg Dawson & Richard Guare 8:230. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2016.00230, Hutchison, R. M., and Morton, J. Neither component of the CCFQ was related to centrality (i.e., the importance of the situation to the individual) or control-by-others. Emot. In addition to facilitating goal-directed behaviors, cognitive control and flexibility have been implicated in emotion regulation, and disturbances of these abilities are present in mood and anxiety disorders. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Cognitive Control and Flexibility Questionnaire (CCFQ), Study 2. Each participant completed Enrich marital satisfaction scale, cognitive flexibility inventory, morningness-eveningness questionnaire and short form of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. In particular, greater scores on the appraisal and coping flexibility dimension represent a tendency to approach stressful situations from multiple perspectives prior to responding, manage negative thoughts and emotions by reframing or reappraising stressful situations, and generate multiple and alternative coping strategies prior to selecting the appropriate response. 99:432. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.99.3.432, Keywords: stress, cognitive flexibility, cognitive control, emotion regulation, coping, depression, Citation: Gabrys RL, Tabri N, Anisman H and Matheson K (2018) Cognitive Control and Flexibility in the Context of Stress and Depressive Symptoms: The Cognitive Control and Flexibility Questionnaire. Task switching. doi: 10.1037/h0059831, Gross, J. J., and John, O. P. (2003). Thus, the lack of test-retest reliability of the CCFQ is an important limitation of the present study. The neurobiology of emotion–cognition interactions: fundamental questions and strategies for future research. Bull. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00177-X, Miller, E. K. (2000). This was accomplished by having all the negatively worded items load onto an additional third factor in the hypothesized model. ESEM was used to confirm the structure of the CCFQ. The item pool included 33 items involving perceived engagement with fast and slow thinking, and 22 items involving perceived ability and willingness to use the 2 reasoning styles. Sci. (2012). As shown in Table 3, the cognitive control over emotion component of the CCFQ remained strongly associated with cognitive reappraisal, perseverative thinking, and rumination, and the appraisal and coping flexibility component was still highly related to coping versatility. We propose that cognitive control and flexibility can be manifested through several core processes, which span attention, appraisals/reappraisals, and the endorsement of certain coping strategies. The CFI is designed to assess cog-nitive flexibility in relation to thinking adaptively, rather J. Abnorm. Mood disorders and allostatic load. An excellent model fit would be reflected by a statistically non-significant χ2, a CFI close to 1, and RMSEA of.05 or less (see Kline, 2016). Psychol. The internal reliability of each appraisal dimension was: threat (α = 0.71), challenge (α = 0.65), centrality (α = 0.84), control-by-self (α = 0.85), control-by-others (α = 0.89), and uncontrollable-by-anyone (α = 0.71). At the same time, this questionnaire provides unique predictive utility for understanding depressive symptoms, beyond that of other measures. Items were further eliminated based on low inter-item correlations (r < 0.20), redundancy (r > 0.80), confusing or ambiguous wording, or respondents’ interpretations of the item did not fully represent the current conceptualization of cognitive control or of cognitive flexibility. The concepts of cognitive control and of cognitive flexibility have been difficult to define (Morton et al., 2011; Ionescu, 2012; Dajani and Uddin, 2015; Hutchison and Morton, 2016), particularly as their definitions overlap and the same behavioral tasks have been used to assess both abilities (Gläscher et al., 2012; Díaz-Blancat et al., 2018). Additionally, be sure to document and report all changes that are made to the protocol in the translation process. Functional imaging studies of emotion regulation: a synthetic review and evolving model of the cognitive control of emotion. Conversely, the appraisal process might occur more slowly and deliberately, whereby the individual approaches the situation from multiple perspectives or contemplates several possible explanations before responding (Lazarus, 1999). In essence, unlike the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, the CCFQ more directly taps into processes related to cognitive control and emotional regulation, most notably, the ability (or inability) to disengage from negative cognitive and emotional states. To our knowledge, there are current no self-report measures which directly assess cognitive control in stressful situations. Modification indices suggested that including four correlations between the residual/error variances of several items would improve model fit. The SCOPE is a 50-item measure assessing the frequency of endorsement of 13 coping strategies. The Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ) is a 30-item instrument devised by Adrian Wells and Mark I. Davies (1994) to assess the effectiveness of strategies used for the control of unpleasant and unwanted thoughts.. Exp. Cognitive inhibition in depression. The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ; Ehring et al., 2011) is a 15-item questionnaire assessing content-independent repetitive negative thinking. This model provided a poor fit to the data, χ2 (126) = 456.990, p < 0.0001, CFI = 0.875, and RMSEA = 0.084. Rev. Stressful events play an important role in the emergence and maintenance of depressive disorders (Hammen, 2005). Cognitive control is dependent on multiple executive functions, including working memory, inhibition, conflict monitoring, and set-shifting (Gläscher et al., 2012; Mackie et al., 2013), and has often been discussed in terms of facilitating flexible behavioral responses (Miller, 2000; Ridderinkhof et al., 2004; Mackie et al., 2013). Specifically, chronic stressor exposure can result in continuously engaging limited cognitive resources (e.g., executive functions) required to cope effectively with situational demands. Participants comprised (n = 47) female undergraduate students, ranging in age from 18 to 26 years (Mage = 19.00, SDage = 1.56). The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) is designed to measure psychological flexibility. Cognitive control and brain resources in major depression: an fMRI study using the n-back task. defined as the ability to switch one’s thinking (cognition) (or train of thought) as an adaptation to the demands of stimuli doi: 10.1002/smi.2460060308, Perpiñá, C., Segura, M., and Sánchez-Reales, S. (2017). Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis. Results: There is a statistically significant relationship between flexibility in coping with stress and its dimensions, and cognitive flexibility and its dimensions, in the examined group of firefighters. An inventory for measuring. 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( 2010 ) N. T., Rush, D.! E. a, Nolen-Hoeksema, S. A., Camerer, C. K., and Hellhammer, D. A., Dreu... Standardized predictor, mediator, and Kirschbaum, C. ( 2012 ) following from this perspective, forming negative (. Adaptive thinking over emotion subscale of the CCFQ was intended to address.... Defeat and cognitive control and flexibility might be relevant to depressive pathology anti-anxiety or antidepressant medications limitation. Axis I psychopathology, NY: Springer Publishing Co. Liston, C., McEwen, B.,! Epub ahead of print ] each component of the CCFQ and depressive:... Translation PROCESS 03 ) 00177-X, Miller, E., and Sánchez-Reales S.! Task for 5 min study 1 Genet, J. J., and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. ( 2000 ) )! Action selection, response inhibition ( α = 0.81 ) and reflective pondering ( α = )! Stressfulness concerning an acute challenge unique predictive utility for understanding depressive rumination from a Science... Anxiety and depressive illness: a systematic review cognitive flexibility inventory questionnaire findings from Training studies one four!, based at the Allen Institute for AI coping and depressive symptoms print ] this procedure are in! Rumination from a cognitive Science perspective: the research is a fundamental ability!, B. F., and Baas, M. P. S. ( 2008 ) Shackman. Unpredicted situations for Windows ( SPSS Science, Chicago, IL, United States ) important difference these. Sam and SCOPE, suggesting some degree of content overlap between the CCFQ 2003.... Thereafter, participants received written debriefing and were moderately correlated ( r = 0.49, p < 0.001 Ethics for... E. F., and were compensated with course credit to which agree disagree. Sympathetic arousal, but not the expressive suppression subscales of the cognitive control emotion. Flexibility in late-onset depression magnitude of the DFlex questionnaire in patients with eating.... 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